Paronychia Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment of Nail Infections

Paronychia is a common nail infection that affects the skin surrounding the nails. It can cause redness, swelling, and discomfort, making everyday tasks challenging. Understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and seeking appropriate treatment are crucial for managing paronychia effectively. In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for paronychia, providing valuable insights for those experiencing this condition.

Paronychia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment of Nail Infections

Causes of Paronychia:

Paronychia can be classified into two types: acute and chronic. The causes differ slightly for each type:

  1. Acute Paronycnhia: This type of paronychia is usually caused by a bacterial infection, commonly due to Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus bacteria. It often occurs as a result of minor skin damage around the nail, such as nail biting, picking, or aggressive manicuring.
  2. Chronic Paronycnhia: Chronic paronychia is primarily associated with a fungal infection, commonly caused by Candida yeast. It is often seen in individuals who frequently have their hands exposed to moist environments, such as dishwashers, bartenders, or healthcare workers.

Symptoms of Paronychia:

The symptoms of paronychnia may vary depending on the type of infection and its severity. Common signs and symptoms:

  1. Redness and Swelling: The affected area around the nail becomes red, tender, and swollen.
  2. Pain and Sensitivity: Discomfort and pain may be experienced, particularly when pressure is applied to the affected area or when touching the nail.
  3. Pus Formation: In some cases, the infection may progress, leading to the formation of pus or the development of an abscess.
  4. Nail Changes: Chronic paronychia can cause changes in the nail, including nail thickening, discoloration, or separation from the nail bed.


The treatment for depends on the severity of the infection and its underlying cause. Here are common approaches to managing:

  1. Warm Water Soaks: Soaking the affected finger or toe in warm water mixed with mild antibacterial soap or Epsom salt can help reduce inflammation, promote drainage, and provide relief.
  2. Antibiotics: In cases of acute bacterial paronychia or severe infections, oral antibiotics may be prescribed by a healthcare professional to combat the bacterial infection. Topical antibiotics in the form of creams or ointments may also be used for mild cases.
  3. Antifungal Medications: For chronic paronychia caused by a fungal infection, antifungal creams or oral medications may be recommended to eliminate the underlying fungal growth.
  4. Incision and Drainage: In some instances, if an abscess forms, a medical professional may need to perform a minor surgical procedure to drain the pus and relieve pressure.
  5. Nail Removal: In rare and severe cases where other treatments have been unsuccessful, partial or complete removal of the affected nail may be considered.

Prevention Tips:

To minimize the risk of paronychia, consider the following preventive measures:

  • Maintain good hand hygiene by regularly washing hands and keeping nails clean and trimmed.
  • Avoid biting or picking at the nails or cuticles.
  • Protect your hands from prolonged exposure to moisture by wearing gloves when working with water or chemicals.
  • Be cautious when manicuring nails, avoiding aggressive techniques that could damage the skin around the nails.


Paronychinas can be an uncomfortable and bothersome condition, but with proper care and treatment, it can be effectively managed. Recognizing the symptoms and seeking timely treatment are essential for preventing complications and promoting healing. By practicing good nail hygiene, avoiding damaging behaviors, and seeking medical advice when needed, individuals can reduce the occurrence and severity of paronychia, maintaining healthy and well-groomed nails.

READ: Effective Ways to Treat and How To Get Rid of Nail Fungus

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